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Two cheers: On India’s Sustainable Development Goals index score



India betters score in the latest SDG Index, but methodological (प्रणाली संबंधी) tinkering (फेरबदल, इधर-उधर करना) is cause for concern

India’s push (धक्का दें, प्रयास, अभियान, पहल) in the right direction in achieving Sustainable (सतत, चिरस्थायी, दीर्घकालिक) Development Goals (SDGs) related to clean energy (स्वच्छ ऊर्जा), urban development and health has helped it improve its overall SDG score from 60 in 2019 to 66 in 2021, according to NITI Aayog’s SDG India Index (सूची, तालिका) 2020-21. Besides (के अलावा, इसके अतिरिक्त) SDGs on eradication (नाश, तबाही, उन्मूलन) of poverty and hunger (भूख, भोजन की आवश्यकता; भुखमरी), measures (उपाय, कार्रवाई, कदम, प्रक्रिया) related to the availability of affordable, clean energy (स्वच्छ ऊर्जा) in particular (विशेष रूप से, ख़ासकर), showed improvements across several States and Union Territories. The campaign to improve the access of households (गृहस्थी) to electricity and clean cooking fuel has been shown to be an important factor. While this is cause for cheer (खुशी का कारण, हंसमुख होने का कारण), the Index reveals that there has been a major decline in the areas of industry, innovation and infrastructure (the basic physical or organisational structure for something (to function properly)) besides decent work and economic growth, again made worse by the lockdowns imposed by the governments seeking (try, aim, attempt) to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. But the stark differences (dissimilarity, contrast, deviation, unevenness, variation) between the southern and western States on the one hand and the north-central and eastern States on the other in their performance on the SDGs, point to (indicate, suggest, denote) persisting (continuing, prolonged, persistent, unrelenting, unending, lingering) socio-economic and governance disparities (imbalance, inequality, unevenness, disproportion). These, if left unaddressed, will exacerbate (intensify, increase, heighten, aggravate, worsen, compound) federal challenges and outcomes, as seen in the public health challenges during the second wave across some of the worse-off (in a difficult situation; in a tight spot; less fortunate/wealthy; beleaguered, troubled, hard-pressed) States.

Notwithstanding the improvement in key indicators (measure, gauge, index, signal), the Index has curiously made some methodological changes that render (make, cause to be, cause to become) comparisons on some SDGs over previous years moot (debatable, doubtful, arguable, disputable, problematic). The SDG on inequality (Inequality is simply defined as “the state of not being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities; imbalance, unevenness, disproportion, disparity) shows an improvement over 2019, but the indicators used to measure the score have changed. The 2020-21 Index drops several economic indicators and gives greater weightage to social equality (fairness, justness, egalitarianism, equal rights/opportunities, non-discrimination) indicators such as representation of women and people from marginalised (treated as insignificant, treated as unimportant, neglected) communities in legislatures (local authority, administration, executive, local government) and local governance institutions, and crimes against SC/ST communities. By dropping the well-recognised Gini coefficient (a statistical measure of economic inequality in a population. The coefficient measures the dispersion of income or distribution of wealth among the members of a population) measure and the growth rate for household expenditure per capita among 40% of rural and urban populations (instead, only the percentage of population in the lowest two wealth quintiles is used), the SDG score on inequality seems to have missed out (fail to add/include something, omit; fail to utilize/take advantage of something) on capturing the impact of the pandemic on wealth inequality. This could be a significant miss (omission, slip, blunder, error, mistake) as a UN assessment of the impact of COVID-19 had said that the South Asian region may see rising inequality. Methodological issues on measuring other SDGs have been flagged (indicate, identify, point out) before, but the lack of adequate measurement of economic inequality seems to be a glaring (obvious, visible, apparent, flagrant, blatant) miss. Like in the first wave, the second wave, with more fatalities, has had similar outcomes on livelihoods (means of making a living with the basic necessities (food, water, shelter and clothing); means of support, subsistence, source of income) and jobs. While the better score for India in its endeavour (activity, pursuit; aim/effort) to achieve SDGs will bring some cheer, governments must work on addressing (tackle, deal with, attend to, try to sort out) pressing issues such as increased inequality and economic despair (hopelessness, depression, distress, pain).

Courtesy: The Hindu

Important Word List With Meaning

1.sustainable (adjective)

Hindi Meaning – सतत, चिरस्थायी, दीर्घकालिक
English Meaning – reasonable, sensible, well-founded (without disturbing the balance of nature and then without exhausting all of the natural resources)


2.Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (noun)

Hindi Meaning – सतत विकास लक्ष्यों
English Meaning – The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are a new, universal set of goals, targets, and indicators that UN member states will be expected to use to frame their agendas and political policies over the next 15 years.


3.index (noun)

Hindi Meaning – सूची, तालिका
English Meaning – an (economic) data figure reflecting something (e.g. price/quantity) compared with a standard or base value; pointer, indicator.


4.methodological (adjective)

Hindi Meaning – प्रणाली संबंधी
English Meaning – relating to method/methodology; systematized, systematic, methodical, organized.


5.tinkering (noun)

Hindi Meaning – फेरबदल, इधर-उधर करना
English Meaning – an act of trying to make some small changes to something amateurishly, in order to improve/repair it; repairing, improving, mending.


6.cause for concern (phrase)

Hindi Meaning – चिंता का कारण
English Meaning – a reason to worry (feel anxious).


7.push (noun)

Hindi Meaning – धक्का दें, प्रयास, अभियान, पहल
English Meaning – effort, campaign, initiative, drive.


8.clean energy (noun)

Hindi Meaning – स्वच्छ ऊर्जा
English Meaning – renewable energy, green energy; energy generated from natural resources (such as water, wind & solar energy).


9.besides (preposition/linking adverb)

Hindi Meaning – के अलावा, इसके अतिरिक्त
English Meaning – apart from, in addition to.


10.eradication (noun)

Hindi Meaning – नाश, तबाही, उन्मूलन
English Meaning – removal, elimination, wiping out.


11.hunger (noun)

Hindi Meaning – भूख, भोजन की आवश्यकता; भुखमरी
English Meaning – need for food; starvation, famine, malnutrition.


12.measure (noun)

Hindi Meaning – उपाय, कार्रवाई, कदम, प्रक्रिया
English Meaning – action, step, procedure.


13.in particular (phrase)

Hindi Meaning – विशेष रूप से, ख़ासकर
English Meaning – particularly, specifically, especially.


14.household (noun)

Hindi Meaning – गृहस्थी
English Meaning – family, house.


15.cause for cheer (phrase)

Hindi Meaning – खुशी का कारण, हंसमुख होने का कारण
English Meaning – reason to be cheerful (happy and optimistic).


16.NITI Aayog (noun)

English Meaning – The National Institution for Transforming India, also called NITI Aayog, was formed via a resolution of the Union Cabinet on January 1, 2015. NITI Aayog is the premier policy ‘Think Tank’ of the Government of India, providing both directional and policy inputs. (Thinktank is a panel of experts who provide advice and ideas on political, social or economic issues).


17.infrastructure (noun)

English Meaning – the basic physical or organisational structure for something (to function properly).


18.make worse (phrase)

English Meaning – worsen, aggravate, exacerbate, compound.


19.lockdown (noun)

English Meaning – an emergency protocol implemented by the authorities that prevents people from leaving from a place; An extended state of confinement/encirclement/isolation of a person by the authority.


20.impose (verb)

English Meaning – force, thrust, inflict (an unwelcome decision/ruling).


21.seek (verb)

English Meaning – try, aim, attempt.


22.pandemic (noun)

English Meaning – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.


23.stark (adjective)

English Meaning – clear, distinct, evident, obvious, striking.


24.difference (noun)

English Meaning – dissimilarity, contrast, deviation, unevenness, variation.


25.on the one hand (phrase)

English Meaning – it is used to introduce the first of two contrasting different, points, facts, or ways of looking at something. It is always followed later by “on the other hand” or ‘on the other’.


26.point to (verb)

English Meaning – indicate, suggest, denote.


27.persisting (adjective)

English Meaning – continuing, prolonged, persistent, unrelenting, unending, lingering.


28.socio-economic (adjective)

English Meaning – relating to the interaction of social (position, rank, or importance) and economic (income, pay, and wealth) aspects.


29.disparity (noun)

English Meaning – imbalance, inequality, unevenness, disproportion.


30.unaddressed (adjective)

English Meaning – unnoticed, not considered, not dealt with, not tackled.


31.exacerbate (verb)

English Meaning – intensify, increase, heighten, aggravate, worsen, compound.


32.federal (adjective)

English Meaning – relating to a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.


33.public health (noun)

English Meaning – the branch of medicine handling public health; public health is also the science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities through education, policy-making, and research for disease and injury prevention.


34.worse-off (adjective)

English Meaning – in a difficult situation; in a tight spot; less fortunate/wealthy; beleaguered, troubled, hard-pressed.


35.notwithstanding (conjunction)

English Meaning – although, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, even though.


36.indicator (noun)

English Meaning – measure, gauge, index, signal.


37.curiously (adverb)

English Meaning – mysteriously, surprisingly, unexpectedly.


38.render (verb)

English Meaning – make, cause to be, cause to become.


39.moot (adjective)

English Meaning – debatable, doubtful, arguable, disputable, problematic.


40.inequality (noun)

English Meaning – Inequality is simply defined as “the state of not being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities; imbalance, unevenness, disproportion, disparity.


41.weightage (noun)

English Meaning – importance, significance, value.


42.equality (noun)

English Meaning – fairness, justness, egalitarianism, equal rights/opportunities, non-discrimination.


43.representation (noun)

English Meaning – participation, involvement, engagement (in something (e.g. legislature) as a representative of somebody (e.g. voters).


44.marginalised (adjective)

English Meaning – treated as insignificant, treated as unimportant, neglected.


45.legislature (noun)

English Meaning – local authority, administration, executive, local government.


46.well-recognised (adjective)

English Meaning – famous, well-known.


47.Gini Coefficient/Gini Index (noun) 

English Meaning – a statistical measure of economic inequality in a population. The coefficient measures the dispersion of income or distribution of wealth among the members of a population.


48.per capita (adverb & adjective)

English Meaning – per person, for each, individually.


49.quintile (noun)

English Meaning – any one group of the five equal group proportions used in statistics; In statistics, a quantile for the case where the sample or population is divided into fifths (five equal groups/classes) based on the distribution of values of a particular variable.


50.miss out (phrasal verb)

English Meaning – fail to add/include something, omit; fail to utilize/take advantage of something.


51.despair (noun)

English Meaning – hopelessness, depression, distress, pain.
 

52.miss (noun)

English Meaning – omission, slip, blunder, error, mistake.


53.flag (verb)

English Meaning – indicate, identify, point out.


54.lack of (noun)

English Meaning – absence, deficiency, scarcity, dearth.


55.glaring (adjective)

English Meaning – obvious, visible, apparent, flagrant, blatant.


56.fatality (noun)

English Meaning – death, casualty, mortality/loss.


57.livelihood (noun)

English Meaning – means of making a living with the basic necessities (food, water, shelter and clothing); means of support, subsistence, source of income.


58.endeavour (noun)

English Meaning – activity, pursuit; aim/effort.


59.address (verb)

English Meaning – tackle, deal with, attend to, try to sort out.


60.pressing (adjective)

English Meaning – urgent, critical, crucial, important

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World Environment day 2021

World Environment Day 2021
The World is celebrating World Environment Day today i.e. 5th June 2021. Every year a different country host an event on this day to celebrate the beautiful presence of mother nature and to raise awareness about the various human activities that are disrupting the harmonious balance of life around us.

“World Environment Day, it’s Time for Nature”

This quote sets the tone and defines the purpose behind celebrating the day. United Nations first celebrated World Environment Day in 1974. Since then, the UN celebrates this day on 5th June of every year to raise awareness about the environmental issue world is facing today such as human overpopulation, global warming, marine pollution, wildlife crimes, desertification etc. 

➤History of the World Environment Day

World Environment Day was established by the UN General Assembly in 1972 on the first day of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, resulting from discussions on the integration of human interactions and the environment. Two years later, in 1974 the first World Environment Day was held with the theme “Only One Earth”. Even though the celebration has been held annually since 1974, in 1987 the idea for rotating the centre of these activities through selecting different host countries began.

Note: India hosted World Environment Day on 5th June 2018. The theme of the day was “Beat the Plastic Pollution.” 

➤World Environment Day 2021

Every year a different country host this prestigious day. This year’s World Environment Day is being hosted by ‘Pakistan’ in partnership with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). The event has become the platform for reaching out and engaging governments, NGOs, corporations, businesses, celebrities and citizens to focus their efforts on a pressing environmental issue. The theme for World Environment Day 2021 is “Ecosystem Restoration” and will see the launch of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. Ecosystem restoration can take many forms: Growing trees, greening cities, rewilding

What is Ecosystem restoration?



Ecosystem restoration means assisting in the recovery of ecosystems that have been degraded or destroyed, as well as conserving the ecosystems that are still intact. Healthier ecosystems, with richer biodiversity, yield greater benefits such as more fertile soils, bigger yields of timber and fish, and larger stores of greenhouse gases.

Restoration can happen in many ways – for example through actively planting or by removing pressures so that nature can recover on its own. It is not always possible – or desirable – to return an ecosystem to its original state. We still need farmland and infrastructure on land that was once forest, for instance, and ecosystems, like societies, need to adapt to a changing climate.

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Continents and Oceans

The Earth – Shape and Size

Shape of the Earth

Pythagoras (572-500 B.C.), a Greek philosopher and mathematician, was among the first to suggest that the Earth was shaped like a globe.

The Earth is not flat

1.    If the Earth were a flat disc, then the rising Sun would have been seen at all places at the same time. But this does not happen. Places in the east see the rising Sun earlier.

2.    When a ship approaches land, its funnel or mast is seen first and then the hull. If the Earth had been flat, the whole ship would have been seen at the same time.


The Earth is a sphere

1.    The Earth is rarely oriented in the same position during successive eclipses but it always casts a circular shadow, thus proving that the Earth is a sphere. A sphere is the only solid body that will always cast a circular shadow.

2.    At the North Pole, the Pole Star can always be observed at 90 degrees in the sky, since the star lies in the line with the axis of the Earth.

3.    As one travels southwards, the angle of Pole Star decreases.

4.    At the Equator the angle becomes zero degree.

5.    This observation proves that the path of travel is an arc of a circle.

6.    The Sun, Moon and all the heavenly bodies appear to be spherical when viewed from different positions. It seems logical to conclude that the Earth is no exception.

7.    The photographs of the Earth taken from the space prove beyond any doubt that the Earth is a sphere.


The Earth as an Oblate Spheroid

1.    Refined measurements of the Earth have proved that the true form of the Earth resembles a sphere that has been compressed at the poles and made to bulge at the Equator. This form is known as an oblate spheroid.

2.    The various factors which make the earth suitable for

3.    life to evolve and survive are

4.    The earth has all the essential elements like carbon (in the form of C02), hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (02) which act as building blocks for the origin of life.

5.    The earth is neither too hot nor too cold. It has the right temperature range for carrying out the life-sustaining chemical reactions.

6.    The earth has a lot of water in the form of lakes, rivers and oceans for the growth and survival of life.

7.    The earth has enough oxygen gas in its atmosphere for the survival of living beings through breathing.

8.    The earth has a protective blanket of ozone layer high up in its atmosphere to save life from harmful ultraviolet radiations coming from the sun.


Oceania

Australia with New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands (Micronesian, Melanesian and Polynesian Islands) is called Australasia by some geographers while some others call it “Oceania”, which includes proximate islands (Caribbean countries etc.).


Oceans on The Earth

There are four oceans. In order of their size, they are : Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Arctic Ocean.


Pacific Ocean

1.    The explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who circumnavigated the Earth, named the ocean “Pacific” meaning calm or peaceful.

2.    The Pacific Ocean (Area : 166,240,000 sq. km.) is the largest ocean of the world.

3.    It is the deepest ocean with an average depth of 4,200 m.

4.    The Mariana Trench is the world’s deepest trench with a depth of 11,033 metres (36,201 feet).

5.    Most of the islands of this ocean are of volcanic or coral origin.


Atlantic Ocean

1.    The Atlantic Ocean (Area : 86,560,000 sq. km.) is the second largest ocean in the world

2.    Its name is derived from Atlas, a Titan (giant) in Greek mythology.

3.    The Atlantic Ocean has the longest coastline.

4.    The Atlantic Ocean is the busiest ocean for trade and commerce since its shipping routes connect the two most industrialized regions, namely Western Europe and N.E. United States of America.

5.    The Atlantic Ocean was formed millions of years ago when a rift opened up in the Gondwanaland and the continents of South America and Africa separated. The separation continues even today and the Atlantic Ocean is still widening.

6.    The continental islands of Newfoundland and British Isles are the major ones.

7.    Volcanic islands are fewer and they include those of Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Iceland is the largest island of volcanic origin.


Indian Ocean

1.    The Indian Ocean (Area : 73,430,000 sq. km.) is the only ocean named after a country.

2.    The Indian Ocean is deeper than the Atlantic Ocean.

3.    It contains numerous continental islands, Madagascar and Sri Lanka are being the largest ones.

4.    Some of the islands of volcanic origin are those of Mauritius, Andaman and Nicobar, Seychelles, Maldives and Lakshadweep are of coral origin.


South Indian Ocean

1.    Warm currents : 1. South Equatorial 2. Mozambique 3. Madagascar 4. Agulhas.

2.    Cool Currents : 1. Antarctic drift 2. West Australian currents.


Arctic Ocean

1.    The Arctic Ocean (Area : 13,230,000 sq. km.) is the smallest of all the oceans.

2.    It lies within the Arctic Circle, hence the name Arctic Ocean.

3.    The North Pole lies in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.

4.    Most of the parts of Arctic Ocean remains frozen with thick ice for most of the days every year.

5.    It is the shallowest of all oceans, with an average depth of 1,500 m.

6.    It has the least salinity of all the oceans. It has a salinity of 20 unit per thousand.


Ocean Currents

1.    The flow of a large amount of water in a definite direction with a great intensity is known as Ocean Current.

2.    Ocean Currents are of two types-Hot and Cold.


Hot Currents

1.    The currents flowing from tropical zones of lower latitudes to higher temperate and sub polar zones are known as hot water currents.


Cold Currents

1.    The currents flowing from higher latitudes to lower latitudes are known as cold water currents.
2.    The only exception to the conduction of ocean currents is found in the Indian Ocean. The flow of currents changes here with a change in the direction of the Monsoon Winds. The hot currents flow towards cooler oceans and the cold currents flow towards the warmer oceans.

 

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Important Scientific Instruments and their usage

Important Scientific Instruments and their usage
 



Accumulator

It is used to store electrical energy

Altimeter

It measures altitudes and is used in aircraft.

Ammeter

It measures the strength of electric current (in amperes).

Anemometer

It measures the force and velocity of the wind.

Audiometer

It measures the intensity of sound.

Audiphones

It is used for improving the imperfect sense of hearing.

Barograph

It is used for continuous recording of atmospheric pressure.

Barometer

It measures atmospheric pressure.

Binocular

It is used to view distant objects

Bolometer

It measures heat radiation

Calorimeter

It measures the quantity of heat.

Carburettor

It is used in an internal combustion engine for charging the air with petrol vapor.

Cardiogram

It traces movements of the heart, recorded on a cardiograph.

Chronometer

It determines the longitude of a place in a ship.

Cinematography

It is an instrument used in cinema making to throw on screen and enlarged image of the photograph.

Colorimeter

An instrument for comparing intensities of colour.

Commutator

An instrument to change or remove the direction of an electric current, in dynamo used to convert alternating current into direct current.

Cresco graph

It measures the growth in plants.

Cyclotron

A charged particle accelerator which can accelerate charged particles to high energies.

Dynamo

It converts mechanical energy into electrical energy

Dynamometer

It measures force, torque, and power

Electroscope

It detects the presence of an electric charge.

Endoscope

It examines the internal parts of the body.

Eudiometer

A glass tube for measuring volume changes in chemical reactions between gases.

Fathometer

It measures the depth of the ocean.

Galvanometer

It measures the electric current of low magnitude.

Hydrometer

It measures the specific gravity of liquids.

Hydrophone

It measures sound under water.

Hygrometer

It measures humidity in the air.

Kymograph

It graphically records physiological movements (Blood pressure and heartbeat).

Lactometer

It determines the purity of milk.

Manometer

It measures the pressure of gases.

Mariner’s compass

It is an instrument used by the sailors to determine the direction.

Microphone

It converts the sound waves into electrical vibrations and to magnify the sound.

Microscope

It is used to obtain a magnified view of small objects.

Odometer

An instrument by which the distance covered by wheeled vehicles is measured.

Periscope

It is used to view objects above sea level (used in submarines)

Phonograph

An instrument for producing sound.

Photometer

The instrument compares the luminous intensity of the source of light

Potentiometer

It is used for comparing the electromotive force of cells.

Pyrometer

It measures very high temperature.

Quartz Clock

A highly accurate clock used in astronomical observations and other precision work

Radar

Radio, angle, detection and range is used to detect the direction and range of an approaching aeroplane by means of radio micro waves

Radiometer

It measures the emission of radiant energy.

Rain Gauge

An apparatus for recording rainfall at a particular place.

Rectifier

An instrument used for the conversion of AC into DC.

Refractometer

It measures refractive index.

Saccharimeter

It measures the amount of sugar in the solution.

Salinometer

It determines salinity of solution.

Seismograph

It measures the intensity of earthquake shocks.

Sextant

This is used by navigators to find the latitude of a place by measuring the elevation above the horizon of the sun or another star.

Spectrometer

It is an instrument for measuring the energy distribution of a particular type of radiation.

Spectroscope

An instrument used for spectrum analysis

Speedometer

It is an instrument placed in a vehicle to record its speed.

Spherometer

It measures the curvatures of surfaces.

Sphygmomanometer

It measures blood pressure.

Stereoscope

It is used to view two dimensional pictures.

Stethoscope

An instrument which is used by the doctors to hear and analyse heart and lung sounds.

Stroboscope

It is used to view rapidly moving objects.

Tachometer

An instrument used in measuring speeds of aero planes and motor boats.

Teleprinter

This instrument receives and sends typed messages from one place to another.

Telescope

It views distant objects in space.

Theodolite

It measures horizontal and vertical angles.

Thermometer

This instrument is used for the measurement of temperatures.

Thermostat

It regulates the temperature at a particular point.

Transistor

A small device which may be used to amplify currents and perform other functions usually performed by a thermionic valve

Udometer

It is used to measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time. It is also called Rain Gauge.

Vernier

An adjustable scale for measuring small subdivisions of scale

Viscometer

It measures the viscosity of liquids.

Voltmeter

It measures the electric potential difference between two points.

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Lucent GK important questions

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Geography SSC Static GK

भारत का भूगोल


1. कंचनजंगा भारत के किस राज्‍य में स्थित है?
— सिक्किम में


2. भारत की सबसे प्राचीन पर्वत श्रेणी कौन सी है?
— अरावली


3.अरावली पर्वत का सर्वोच्‍च शिखर क्‍या कहलाता है?
— गुरू शिखर


4. सबसे बडा हिमनद (ग्‍लेशियर) कौन सा है?
— सियाचिन


5. हिमालय के सर्वोच्‍च शिखर की ऊँचाई कितनी है?
— 8850 मीटर


6. कौन सी पहाडि़यॉं नर्मदा और ताप्‍ती नदियों के बीच है?
— सतपुडा की पहाडि़यॉ


7. खैबर दर्रा कहॉ स्थित है?
— पाकिस्‍तान व अफगानिस्‍तान के बीच


8. पालधार दर्रा किन दो राज्‍यों को जोड़ता है?
— केरल व तमिलनाडु


9. नाथूला दर्रा किस राज्‍य में स्थित है?
— उत्‍तराखण्‍ड में


10. जम्‍मू से श्रीनगर का मार्ग किस दर्रें से होकर जाता है?
— बनिहाल दर्रा


11. किस नदी के किनारे पर प्रसिद्ध महाकालेश्‍वर मंदिर है?
— नर्मदा नदी


12. विश्‍व का सबसे बडा डेल्‍टा किन नदियों द्वारा निर्मित होता है?
— गंगा एवं ब्रम्‍हपुत्र द्वारा


13. किस स्‍थान पर भागीरथी और अलकनंदा मिलकर गंगा का निर्माण करती है?
— देवप्रयाग में


14.अरावली पर्वत श्रृंखला किस नदी प्रणाली से विभाजित होती है?
— चम्‍बल एवं साबरमती


15. लूनी नदी कहा गिरती है?
— कच्‍छ का रन में


16. तिब्‍बत में मानसरोवर झील के पास से कौन सी नदियां निकलती है?
— सतलज,सिन्‍धु, ब्रम्‍हपुत्र


17. कौन सी नदी बांग्‍लादेश में जमुना के नाम से जानी जाती है?
— ब्रम्‍हपुत्र


18. किस नदी को दूसरी गंगा के नाम से जाना जाता है?
— कावेरी नदी को


19. शुष्क भूमि के लिए सर्वाधिक उचित फ़सल कौन-सी है?
— मूँगफली


20. राजस्थान की राजधानी कौन-सी है?
— जयपुर


21. उदयपुर की जवारा खानें किस खनिज के उत्खनन के लिए प्रसिद्ध हैं?
— जस्ता


22. महासागरीय एवं महाद्वीपीय परतों में किसके आधार पर अंतर पाया जाता है?
— घनत्त्व


23. प्रायद्वीपीय भारत का कौन-सा तट शीतऋतु में अधिकतम वर्षा प्राप्त करता है?
— कोरोमण्डल तट


24. खनिज पदार्थों की दृष्टि से कौन-सा भारतीय क्षेत्र अधिक समृद्ध है?
— छोटा नागपुर पठार


25. ‘टिहरी बाँध’ को किस नदी से जल प्राप्त होता है?
— भागीरथी


26. किस हवा में चक्रवतीय गति का अभाव पाया जाता है?
— टारनैडो


27. भारत में निम्न में से कौन-सी वनस्पति प्रमुख है?
— पतझड़ वन


28. बहुचर्चित ‘सरदार सरोवर परियोजना’ निम्नलिखित में से किस राज्य में है?
— गुजरात


29. भारत के पश्चिमी घाट पर्वतीय क्षेत्र में निम्न में से किस प्रकार की वनस्पति पायी जाती है?
— सदाबहार


30. भारत में जल विद्युत शक्ति के विकास में कौन-सा राज्य अग्रणी है?
— उत्तर प्रदेश


31. किस तिथि को दिन और रात बराबर होते हैं?
— 23 सितम्बर


32. भारत में नमक की प्राप्ति मुख्य रूप से किस स्रोत से होती है?
— सागरीय जल– चट्टानी नमक की परतें, झील एवं मृदा जल




33. किस नदी को वृहद गंगा के नाम से भी जाना जाता है
— गोदावरी को


34. कौन सी नदी अपना मार्ग बदलने के लिए प्रसिद्ध है
— कोसी


35. कौन सी नदी कपिल जलधारा प्रपात का निर्माण करती है
— नर्मदा


36. कौन सी नदी ओडिशा का शोक कही जाती है
— ब्राम्‍हणी


37. वैन गंगा और पैन गंगा किस की सहायक नदी है
— गोदावरी की


38. किस नदी पर सबसे लम्‍बा सडक पुल बना है
— गंगा


39. कौन सी नदी विश्‍व का सबसे बड़ा नदी द्वीप मजुली बनाती है
— ब्रम्‍हपुत्र


40. नर्मदा नदी का अधिकांश भाग भारत के किस राज्‍य में बहता है
— मध्‍यप्रदेश में


41. कौन सी नदी रिफ्ट घाटी से होकर बहती है
— ताप्‍ती नदी


42. कौन सी नदी पर भारत व पाकिस्‍तान का जल समझौता हुआ है
— सिन्‍धु


43. सिन्‍धु समझौते के अनुसार भारत सिन्‍धु नदी के कितने प्रतिशत जल का प्रयोग कर सकता है
— 20 प्रतिशत


44. कौन सी नदी भारत के केवल जम्‍मू कश्‍मीर राज्‍य से होकर बहती है
— सिन्‍धु नदी


45. पंचगंगा तथा दूधगंगा किसकी सहायक नदियॉ है
— कृष्‍णा नदी की


46. दमोदर नदी कहा से निकलती है
— छोटा नागपुर के पठार से


47. किस प्रकार की मिट्टी के लिए न्यूनतम उर्वरक की आवश्यकता होती है?
— जलोढ़ मिट्टी


48. भारत के समस्त स्थल भाग का कितना प्रतिशत जलोढ़ मिट्टी से आच्छादित है?
— 24%


49. जलोढ़ मिट्टी में जब बालू के कणों और चीका की मात्रा लगभग बराबर होती है तो उसे क्या नाम दिया जाता है?
— दोमट


50. कौन-सी मिट्टी प्रायद्वीपीय भारत में अधिकतर क्षेत्र पर विस्तृत है?
— काली मिट्टी


51. कपास की खेती के लिए सर्वोत्तम मिट्टी होती है?
— काली मिट्टी


52. लावा के प्रवाह से किस मिट्टी का निर्माण होता है?
— काली मिट्टी


53. भारत किस गोलार्द्ध में स्थित है?
— उत्तरी और पूर्वी गोलार्द्ध


54. सर्वप्रथम इण्डिया शब्द का प्रयोग भारत के लिए किस भाषा में किया गया?
— ग्रीक


55. भारत में समुद्री तट रेखा वाले राज्यों की संख्या कितनी है?
— 9


56. किस भारतीय राज्य की सीमा सर्वाधिक राज्यों की सीमा को स्पर्श करती है?
— उत्तर प्रदेश


57. सबसे लम्बी तटीय रेखा वाला राज्य कौन-सा है?
— गुजरात


58. भारत का सबसे दक्षिणी बिन्दु निम्नलिखित में से कौन-सा है?
— इन्दिरा प्वाइंट


59. इन्दिरा प्वाइंट को अन्य किस नाम से जाना जाता है?
— पारसन प्वाइंट, ला-हि-चिंग, पिगमेलियन प्वाइंट


60. भारत और श्रीलंका को पृथक करने वाला जलडमरूमध्य क्या कहलाता है?
— पाक जलसन्धि


61. भारत की सबसे लम्बी स्थलीय सीमा किस देश के साथ लगती है?
— बांग्लादेश


62. भारत की सबसे छोटी स्थलीय सीमा किस देश के साथ लगती है?
— भूटान


63. दक्षिण भारत का सर्वोच्च पर्वत शिखर कौन-सा है?
— अनाईमुदी


64. आर्यों ने भारत में किस दर्रे से होकर प्रवेश किया था?
— खैबर


65. भारत की कौन-सी पर्वत श्रेणी नवीनतम है?
— हिमालय


66. प्राय:द्वीपीय भारत की सबसे बड़ी नदी कौन-सी है?
— गोदावरी नदी


67. भारत और पाकिस्तान के बीच रेडक्लिक रेखा कब निर्धारित की गई?
— 15 अगस्त 1947 को


68. महेन्द्र गिरि की पहाडियॉं किन दो राज्यों के तट पर है?
— ओडिशा एवं आंध्र प्रदेश के तट पर है


69. केंद्रशासित प्रदेशों में सबसे बडा पत्तन कौन सा है?
— पोर्ट ब्लेयर


70. कोलाबा प्वाइंट कहॉ है?
— मुम्बई में


71. डूरंड रेखा जो भारत और अफगानिस्‍तान के मध्‍य है, कब निर्धारित की गई थी?
— 1896 में


72. भारत की सबसे बडी तटीय झील कौन सी है?
— चिल्‍का झील (ओडि़शा)


73. मीठे पानी सबसे बड़ी झील कौन सी है?
— बुलर झील


74. बुलर झील भारत के किस राज्‍य में है?
— जम्‍मू कश्‍मीर में


75. खारे पानी की सबसे बडी झील कौन सी है?
— सांभर झील


76. सबसे बड़ी कृत्रिम झील कौन सी है?
— इंदिरा सागर झील


77. गोविन्‍द् सागर झील कहॉं स्थित है?
— हिमाचल प्रदेश


78. भारत का सबसे ऊँचा जल प्रपात कौन सा है?
— गरसोप्‍पा जल प्रपात या जोग जल प्रपात


79. जोग जलप्रपात किस राज्‍य में है?
— कर्नाटक में


80. जोग जलप्रपात का नया नाम क्‍या है?
— महात्‍मा गांधी जल प्रपात


81. महात्‍मा गांधी जलविद्युत उत्‍पादक प्‍लान्‍ट कहॉ है?
— जोग जलप्रपात पर ( कर्नाटक में )


82. जोग जलप्रपात किस नदी पर है?
— श्रावती नदी पर


83. कलोकत जल प्रपात किस राज्‍य में है?
— बिहार में?


84. गंगानदी का उद्गमस्‍थल कौन सा है?
— गंगोत्री (उत्‍तराखण्‍ड)


85. भारत की पवित्र नदी कौन सी है?
— गंगा


86. गंगा को बाग्‍लादेश में किस नाम से जानी जाती है?
— पद्मा


87. कुल अक्षांशों की संख्या कितनी है?
— 180


88. विश्व का सबसे बड़ा नदी द्वीप ‘माजुली’ का निर्माण करने वाली नदी हैं?
— ब्रह्मपुत्र


89. पृथ्वी के उत्तरी ध्रुव एवं दक्षिणी ध्रुव को मिलाने वाली रेखा क्या कहलाती है?
— देशांतर रेखा


90. स्थल मण्डल का तात्पर्य है?
— पृथ्वी की बाह्य पपड़ी


91. किस नदी को ‘उड़ीसा का शोक’ कहा जाता है?
— महानदी


92. पृथ्वी के किस भाग में निकल और लोहे की प्रधानता है?
— निफे


93. तमिलनाडु व आन्ध्र प्रदेश के तट का नाम है?
— कोरोमण्डल


94. छोटा नागपुर का पठार जिस संसाधन में समृद्ध है, वह है?
— खनिज


95. कोपली जिसकी सहायक नदी है, वह है?
— ब्रह्मपुत्र


96. भारत में मुख्य कृषि पदार्थ आयात मद हैं
— खाने योग्य तेल


97. नेवल एअर स्टेशन ‘गरुड़’ कहाँ पर स्थित है?
— कोच्चि


98. समुद्री तट के सहारे कोहरे के निर्माण का कारण है?
— अभिवहन


99. दक्षिण भारत में प्रवाहित होने वाली किस नदी का थाला सबसे बड़ा है?
— गोदावरी


100.शस्य गहनता की दृष्टि से भारत का सबसे समृद्ध राज्य कौन-सा है?
— पंजाब

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