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Notes on Salient Features of Indian Constitution


The Constitution of India is the longest, written constitution in the world, with 464 articles under 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices, and 122 amendments today. The Constitution of India is the lengthiest constitution in the world as no other constitution contains as many articles.

India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic State

The Constitution declares India to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.

➤Sovereign means absolutely independent, it is not under the control of any other state.

➤Socialist involves a system which will endeavour to avoid concentration of wealth in a few hands and will assure its equitable distribution. It also implies that India is against exploitation in all forms and believes in economic justice to all its citizens.

➤Secular means there is no state religion in India. Every citizen is free to follow and practice the religion of his/her own choice. The state cannot discriminate among its citizens on the basis of religion.

➤Democratic means that the power of the government is vested in the hands of the people, people exercise this power through their elected representatives who are responsible to them. All citizens enjoy equal political rights.

➤Republic means that the head of the state is not a hereditary monarch.

➤Federal Government: The constitution provides for a federal form of government. In a federation, there are two governments- at the central level and at the state level. The powers of the government are divided between the central government and the state government.

➤Fundamental Rights & Fundamental Duties: Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties are the most important characteristics of the Constitution. Fundamental Rights are considered to be essential for the proper moral and material uplift of people. These rights are fundamental in the sense that any law passed by the legislature in the country would be declared as null and void if it is derogatory to the rights guaranteed by the constitution.

➤Parliamentary Government: Indian Constitution provides a parliamentary form of government. President is the nominal head of the state. The government is run by the Prime Minister and other members of the Council of Minister. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament.

➤Partly rigid and partly flexible: The Constitution of India is neither wholly rigid nor wholly flexible. It is partly rigid and partly flexible.

• Certain provisions of the constitution can be amended by a simple majority in the Parliament.

• Certain provisions can be amended by a two-thirds majority of the Parliament and its ratification by at least fifty percent of states.

• The remaining provisions can be amended by the Parliament by the two-thirds majority.

➤Single Citizenship: In the federation, normally we have double citizenship. In the U.S.A every citizen of the United States of America is also a citizen of the state in which he or she resides. But the constitution of India provides single citizenship to every Indian.

➤Independent Judiciary: The Indian Constitution provides for an independent judiciary. The judiciary has been made independent of the Executive as well as the Legislature. The judges give impartial justice

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List Of Diseases Caused By Virus, Bacteria, Protozoa And Worm


Disease caused by Viruses:

Chicken pox – It is caused by Varicella-zoster virus.

Small Pox – It is caused by Variola virus.

Common Cold -It is caused by Rhinovirus.

AIDS (Acquired Immunono Deficiency Syndrome) – It is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

Measles -It is caused by Measles virus.

Mumps -It is caused by Mumps virus.

Rabies – It is caused by Rabies virus (Rhabdoviridae family).

Dengue fever -It is caused by Dengue virus.

Viral encephalitis – It is an inflammation of the brain. It is caused by rabies virus, Herpes simplex, polio virus, measles virus, and JC virus.

Disease caused by Bacteria:

Whooping Cough – It is caused by a bacterium called Borde tella pertussis.

Diphtheria – It is caused by Coryne bacterium diphtheriae.

Cholera – It is caused by Vibrio cholerae.

Leprosy – It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae.

Pneumonia- It is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Tetanus – It is caused by Clostridium tetani.

Typhoid – It is caused by Salmonella typhi.

Tuberculosis – It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Plague – It is caused by Yersinia pestis.

Disease Caused by Protozoans: 

Malaria It is spread by Anopheles mosquitoes. The Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria is neither a virus nor a bacteria

Amoebic dysentery: It is caused by Entamoebahistolytica.

Sleeping sickness: It is caused by Trypanosomabrucei.

Kala azar It is caused by Leishmaniadonovani.

Disease Caused by Worms

Tapeworm: They are intestinal parasites. It cannot live on its own. It survives within the intestine of an animal including human.

Filariasis: It is caused by thread.

Pinworm: It is caused by small, thin, white roundworm called Enterobiusvermicularis

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