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World Environment day 2021

World Environment Day 2021
The World is celebrating World Environment Day today i.e. 5th June 2021. Every year a different country host an event on this day to celebrate the beautiful presence of mother nature and to raise awareness about the various human activities that are disrupting the harmonious balance of life around us.

“World Environment Day, it’s Time for Nature”

This quote sets the tone and defines the purpose behind celebrating the day. United Nations first celebrated World Environment Day in 1974. Since then, the UN celebrates this day on 5th June of every year to raise awareness about the environmental issue world is facing today such as human overpopulation, global warming, marine pollution, wildlife crimes, desertification etc. 

➤History of the World Environment Day

World Environment Day was established by the UN General Assembly in 1972 on the first day of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, resulting from discussions on the integration of human interactions and the environment. Two years later, in 1974 the first World Environment Day was held with the theme “Only One Earth”. Even though the celebration has been held annually since 1974, in 1987 the idea for rotating the centre of these activities through selecting different host countries began.

Note: India hosted World Environment Day on 5th June 2018. The theme of the day was “Beat the Plastic Pollution.” 

➤World Environment Day 2021

Every year a different country host this prestigious day. This year’s World Environment Day is being hosted by ‘Pakistan’ in partnership with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). The event has become the platform for reaching out and engaging governments, NGOs, corporations, businesses, celebrities and citizens to focus their efforts on a pressing environmental issue. The theme for World Environment Day 2021 is “Ecosystem Restoration” and will see the launch of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. Ecosystem restoration can take many forms: Growing trees, greening cities, rewilding

What is Ecosystem restoration?



Ecosystem restoration means assisting in the recovery of ecosystems that have been degraded or destroyed, as well as conserving the ecosystems that are still intact. Healthier ecosystems, with richer biodiversity, yield greater benefits such as more fertile soils, bigger yields of timber and fish, and larger stores of greenhouse gases.

Restoration can happen in many ways – for example through actively planting or by removing pressures so that nature can recover on its own. It is not always possible – or desirable – to return an ecosystem to its original state. We still need farmland and infrastructure on land that was once forest, for instance, and ecosystems, like societies, need to adapt to a changing climate.

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Continents and Oceans

The Earth – Shape and Size

Shape of the Earth

Pythagoras (572-500 B.C.), a Greek philosopher and mathematician, was among the first to suggest that the Earth was shaped like a globe.

The Earth is not flat

1.    If the Earth were a flat disc, then the rising Sun would have been seen at all places at the same time. But this does not happen. Places in the east see the rising Sun earlier.

2.    When a ship approaches land, its funnel or mast is seen first and then the hull. If the Earth had been flat, the whole ship would have been seen at the same time.


The Earth is a sphere

1.    The Earth is rarely oriented in the same position during successive eclipses but it always casts a circular shadow, thus proving that the Earth is a sphere. A sphere is the only solid body that will always cast a circular shadow.

2.    At the North Pole, the Pole Star can always be observed at 90 degrees in the sky, since the star lies in the line with the axis of the Earth.

3.    As one travels southwards, the angle of Pole Star decreases.

4.    At the Equator the angle becomes zero degree.

5.    This observation proves that the path of travel is an arc of a circle.

6.    The Sun, Moon and all the heavenly bodies appear to be spherical when viewed from different positions. It seems logical to conclude that the Earth is no exception.

7.    The photographs of the Earth taken from the space prove beyond any doubt that the Earth is a sphere.


The Earth as an Oblate Spheroid

1.    Refined measurements of the Earth have proved that the true form of the Earth resembles a sphere that has been compressed at the poles and made to bulge at the Equator. This form is known as an oblate spheroid.

2.    The various factors which make the earth suitable for

3.    life to evolve and survive are

4.    The earth has all the essential elements like carbon (in the form of C02), hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (02) which act as building blocks for the origin of life.

5.    The earth is neither too hot nor too cold. It has the right temperature range for carrying out the life-sustaining chemical reactions.

6.    The earth has a lot of water in the form of lakes, rivers and oceans for the growth and survival of life.

7.    The earth has enough oxygen gas in its atmosphere for the survival of living beings through breathing.

8.    The earth has a protective blanket of ozone layer high up in its atmosphere to save life from harmful ultraviolet radiations coming from the sun.


Oceania

Australia with New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands (Micronesian, Melanesian and Polynesian Islands) is called Australasia by some geographers while some others call it “Oceania”, which includes proximate islands (Caribbean countries etc.).


Oceans on The Earth

There are four oceans. In order of their size, they are : Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Arctic Ocean.


Pacific Ocean

1.    The explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who circumnavigated the Earth, named the ocean “Pacific” meaning calm or peaceful.

2.    The Pacific Ocean (Area : 166,240,000 sq. km.) is the largest ocean of the world.

3.    It is the deepest ocean with an average depth of 4,200 m.

4.    The Mariana Trench is the world’s deepest trench with a depth of 11,033 metres (36,201 feet).

5.    Most of the islands of this ocean are of volcanic or coral origin.


Atlantic Ocean

1.    The Atlantic Ocean (Area : 86,560,000 sq. km.) is the second largest ocean in the world

2.    Its name is derived from Atlas, a Titan (giant) in Greek mythology.

3.    The Atlantic Ocean has the longest coastline.

4.    The Atlantic Ocean is the busiest ocean for trade and commerce since its shipping routes connect the two most industrialized regions, namely Western Europe and N.E. United States of America.

5.    The Atlantic Ocean was formed millions of years ago when a rift opened up in the Gondwanaland and the continents of South America and Africa separated. The separation continues even today and the Atlantic Ocean is still widening.

6.    The continental islands of Newfoundland and British Isles are the major ones.

7.    Volcanic islands are fewer and they include those of Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Iceland is the largest island of volcanic origin.


Indian Ocean

1.    The Indian Ocean (Area : 73,430,000 sq. km.) is the only ocean named after a country.

2.    The Indian Ocean is deeper than the Atlantic Ocean.

3.    It contains numerous continental islands, Madagascar and Sri Lanka are being the largest ones.

4.    Some of the islands of volcanic origin are those of Mauritius, Andaman and Nicobar, Seychelles, Maldives and Lakshadweep are of coral origin.


South Indian Ocean

1.    Warm currents : 1. South Equatorial 2. Mozambique 3. Madagascar 4. Agulhas.

2.    Cool Currents : 1. Antarctic drift 2. West Australian currents.


Arctic Ocean

1.    The Arctic Ocean (Area : 13,230,000 sq. km.) is the smallest of all the oceans.

2.    It lies within the Arctic Circle, hence the name Arctic Ocean.

3.    The North Pole lies in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.

4.    Most of the parts of Arctic Ocean remains frozen with thick ice for most of the days every year.

5.    It is the shallowest of all oceans, with an average depth of 1,500 m.

6.    It has the least salinity of all the oceans. It has a salinity of 20 unit per thousand.


Ocean Currents

1.    The flow of a large amount of water in a definite direction with a great intensity is known as Ocean Current.

2.    Ocean Currents are of two types-Hot and Cold.


Hot Currents

1.    The currents flowing from tropical zones of lower latitudes to higher temperate and sub polar zones are known as hot water currents.


Cold Currents

1.    The currents flowing from higher latitudes to lower latitudes are known as cold water currents.
2.    The only exception to the conduction of ocean currents is found in the Indian Ocean. The flow of currents changes here with a change in the direction of the Monsoon Winds. The hot currents flow towards cooler oceans and the cold currents flow towards the warmer oceans.

 

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Important Scientific Instruments and their usage

Important Scientific Instruments and their usage
 



Accumulator

It is used to store electrical energy

Altimeter

It measures altitudes and is used in aircraft.

Ammeter

It measures the strength of electric current (in amperes).

Anemometer

It measures the force and velocity of the wind.

Audiometer

It measures the intensity of sound.

Audiphones

It is used for improving the imperfect sense of hearing.

Barograph

It is used for continuous recording of atmospheric pressure.

Barometer

It measures atmospheric pressure.

Binocular

It is used to view distant objects

Bolometer

It measures heat radiation

Calorimeter

It measures the quantity of heat.

Carburettor

It is used in an internal combustion engine for charging the air with petrol vapor.

Cardiogram

It traces movements of the heart, recorded on a cardiograph.

Chronometer

It determines the longitude of a place in a ship.

Cinematography

It is an instrument used in cinema making to throw on screen and enlarged image of the photograph.

Colorimeter

An instrument for comparing intensities of colour.

Commutator

An instrument to change or remove the direction of an electric current, in dynamo used to convert alternating current into direct current.

Cresco graph

It measures the growth in plants.

Cyclotron

A charged particle accelerator which can accelerate charged particles to high energies.

Dynamo

It converts mechanical energy into electrical energy

Dynamometer

It measures force, torque, and power

Electroscope

It detects the presence of an electric charge.

Endoscope

It examines the internal parts of the body.

Eudiometer

A glass tube for measuring volume changes in chemical reactions between gases.

Fathometer

It measures the depth of the ocean.

Galvanometer

It measures the electric current of low magnitude.

Hydrometer

It measures the specific gravity of liquids.

Hydrophone

It measures sound under water.

Hygrometer

It measures humidity in the air.

Kymograph

It graphically records physiological movements (Blood pressure and heartbeat).

Lactometer

It determines the purity of milk.

Manometer

It measures the pressure of gases.

Mariner’s compass

It is an instrument used by the sailors to determine the direction.

Microphone

It converts the sound waves into electrical vibrations and to magnify the sound.

Microscope

It is used to obtain a magnified view of small objects.

Odometer

An instrument by which the distance covered by wheeled vehicles is measured.

Periscope

It is used to view objects above sea level (used in submarines)

Phonograph

An instrument for producing sound.

Photometer

The instrument compares the luminous intensity of the source of light

Potentiometer

It is used for comparing the electromotive force of cells.

Pyrometer

It measures very high temperature.

Quartz Clock

A highly accurate clock used in astronomical observations and other precision work

Radar

Radio, angle, detection and range is used to detect the direction and range of an approaching aeroplane by means of radio micro waves

Radiometer

It measures the emission of radiant energy.

Rain Gauge

An apparatus for recording rainfall at a particular place.

Rectifier

An instrument used for the conversion of AC into DC.

Refractometer

It measures refractive index.

Saccharimeter

It measures the amount of sugar in the solution.

Salinometer

It determines salinity of solution.

Seismograph

It measures the intensity of earthquake shocks.

Sextant

This is used by navigators to find the latitude of a place by measuring the elevation above the horizon of the sun or another star.

Spectrometer

It is an instrument for measuring the energy distribution of a particular type of radiation.

Spectroscope

An instrument used for spectrum analysis

Speedometer

It is an instrument placed in a vehicle to record its speed.

Spherometer

It measures the curvatures of surfaces.

Sphygmomanometer

It measures blood pressure.

Stereoscope

It is used to view two dimensional pictures.

Stethoscope

An instrument which is used by the doctors to hear and analyse heart and lung sounds.

Stroboscope

It is used to view rapidly moving objects.

Tachometer

An instrument used in measuring speeds of aero planes and motor boats.

Teleprinter

This instrument receives and sends typed messages from one place to another.

Telescope

It views distant objects in space.

Theodolite

It measures horizontal and vertical angles.

Thermometer

This instrument is used for the measurement of temperatures.

Thermostat

It regulates the temperature at a particular point.

Transistor

A small device which may be used to amplify currents and perform other functions usually performed by a thermionic valve

Udometer

It is used to measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time. It is also called Rain Gauge.

Vernier

An adjustable scale for measuring small subdivisions of scale

Viscometer

It measures the viscosity of liquids.

Voltmeter

It measures the electric potential difference between two points.

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Lucent GK important questions

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भारत का भूगोल


1. कंचनजंगा भारत के किस राज्‍य में स्थित है?
— सिक्किम में


2. भारत की सबसे प्राचीन पर्वत श्रेणी कौन सी है?
— अरावली


3.अरावली पर्वत का सर्वोच्‍च शिखर क्‍या कहलाता है?
— गुरू शिखर


4. सबसे बडा हिमनद (ग्‍लेशियर) कौन सा है?
— सियाचिन


5. हिमालय के सर्वोच्‍च शिखर की ऊँचाई कितनी है?
— 8850 मीटर


6. कौन सी पहाडि़यॉं नर्मदा और ताप्‍ती नदियों के बीच है?
— सतपुडा की पहाडि़यॉ


7. खैबर दर्रा कहॉ स्थित है?
— पाकिस्‍तान व अफगानिस्‍तान के बीच


8. पालधार दर्रा किन दो राज्‍यों को जोड़ता है?
— केरल व तमिलनाडु


9. नाथूला दर्रा किस राज्‍य में स्थित है?
— उत्‍तराखण्‍ड में


10. जम्‍मू से श्रीनगर का मार्ग किस दर्रें से होकर जाता है?
— बनिहाल दर्रा


11. किस नदी के किनारे पर प्रसिद्ध महाकालेश्‍वर मंदिर है?
— नर्मदा नदी


12. विश्‍व का सबसे बडा डेल्‍टा किन नदियों द्वारा निर्मित होता है?
— गंगा एवं ब्रम्‍हपुत्र द्वारा


13. किस स्‍थान पर भागीरथी और अलकनंदा मिलकर गंगा का निर्माण करती है?
— देवप्रयाग में


14.अरावली पर्वत श्रृंखला किस नदी प्रणाली से विभाजित होती है?
— चम्‍बल एवं साबरमती


15. लूनी नदी कहा गिरती है?
— कच्‍छ का रन में


16. तिब्‍बत में मानसरोवर झील के पास से कौन सी नदियां निकलती है?
— सतलज,सिन्‍धु, ब्रम्‍हपुत्र


17. कौन सी नदी बांग्‍लादेश में जमुना के नाम से जानी जाती है?
— ब्रम्‍हपुत्र


18. किस नदी को दूसरी गंगा के नाम से जाना जाता है?
— कावेरी नदी को


19. शुष्क भूमि के लिए सर्वाधिक उचित फ़सल कौन-सी है?
— मूँगफली


20. राजस्थान की राजधानी कौन-सी है?
— जयपुर


21. उदयपुर की जवारा खानें किस खनिज के उत्खनन के लिए प्रसिद्ध हैं?
— जस्ता


22. महासागरीय एवं महाद्वीपीय परतों में किसके आधार पर अंतर पाया जाता है?
— घनत्त्व


23. प्रायद्वीपीय भारत का कौन-सा तट शीतऋतु में अधिकतम वर्षा प्राप्त करता है?
— कोरोमण्डल तट


24. खनिज पदार्थों की दृष्टि से कौन-सा भारतीय क्षेत्र अधिक समृद्ध है?
— छोटा नागपुर पठार


25. ‘टिहरी बाँध’ को किस नदी से जल प्राप्त होता है?
— भागीरथी


26. किस हवा में चक्रवतीय गति का अभाव पाया जाता है?
— टारनैडो


27. भारत में निम्न में से कौन-सी वनस्पति प्रमुख है?
— पतझड़ वन


28. बहुचर्चित ‘सरदार सरोवर परियोजना’ निम्नलिखित में से किस राज्य में है?
— गुजरात


29. भारत के पश्चिमी घाट पर्वतीय क्षेत्र में निम्न में से किस प्रकार की वनस्पति पायी जाती है?
— सदाबहार


30. भारत में जल विद्युत शक्ति के विकास में कौन-सा राज्य अग्रणी है?
— उत्तर प्रदेश


31. किस तिथि को दिन और रात बराबर होते हैं?
— 23 सितम्बर


32. भारत में नमक की प्राप्ति मुख्य रूप से किस स्रोत से होती है?
— सागरीय जल– चट्टानी नमक की परतें, झील एवं मृदा जल




33. किस नदी को वृहद गंगा के नाम से भी जाना जाता है
— गोदावरी को


34. कौन सी नदी अपना मार्ग बदलने के लिए प्रसिद्ध है
— कोसी


35. कौन सी नदी कपिल जलधारा प्रपात का निर्माण करती है
— नर्मदा


36. कौन सी नदी ओडिशा का शोक कही जाती है
— ब्राम्‍हणी


37. वैन गंगा और पैन गंगा किस की सहायक नदी है
— गोदावरी की


38. किस नदी पर सबसे लम्‍बा सडक पुल बना है
— गंगा


39. कौन सी नदी विश्‍व का सबसे बड़ा नदी द्वीप मजुली बनाती है
— ब्रम्‍हपुत्र


40. नर्मदा नदी का अधिकांश भाग भारत के किस राज्‍य में बहता है
— मध्‍यप्रदेश में


41. कौन सी नदी रिफ्ट घाटी से होकर बहती है
— ताप्‍ती नदी


42. कौन सी नदी पर भारत व पाकिस्‍तान का जल समझौता हुआ है
— सिन्‍धु


43. सिन्‍धु समझौते के अनुसार भारत सिन्‍धु नदी के कितने प्रतिशत जल का प्रयोग कर सकता है
— 20 प्रतिशत


44. कौन सी नदी भारत के केवल जम्‍मू कश्‍मीर राज्‍य से होकर बहती है
— सिन्‍धु नदी


45. पंचगंगा तथा दूधगंगा किसकी सहायक नदियॉ है
— कृष्‍णा नदी की


46. दमोदर नदी कहा से निकलती है
— छोटा नागपुर के पठार से


47. किस प्रकार की मिट्टी के लिए न्यूनतम उर्वरक की आवश्यकता होती है?
— जलोढ़ मिट्टी


48. भारत के समस्त स्थल भाग का कितना प्रतिशत जलोढ़ मिट्टी से आच्छादित है?
— 24%


49. जलोढ़ मिट्टी में जब बालू के कणों और चीका की मात्रा लगभग बराबर होती है तो उसे क्या नाम दिया जाता है?
— दोमट


50. कौन-सी मिट्टी प्रायद्वीपीय भारत में अधिकतर क्षेत्र पर विस्तृत है?
— काली मिट्टी


51. कपास की खेती के लिए सर्वोत्तम मिट्टी होती है?
— काली मिट्टी


52. लावा के प्रवाह से किस मिट्टी का निर्माण होता है?
— काली मिट्टी


53. भारत किस गोलार्द्ध में स्थित है?
— उत्तरी और पूर्वी गोलार्द्ध


54. सर्वप्रथम इण्डिया शब्द का प्रयोग भारत के लिए किस भाषा में किया गया?
— ग्रीक


55. भारत में समुद्री तट रेखा वाले राज्यों की संख्या कितनी है?
— 9


56. किस भारतीय राज्य की सीमा सर्वाधिक राज्यों की सीमा को स्पर्श करती है?
— उत्तर प्रदेश


57. सबसे लम्बी तटीय रेखा वाला राज्य कौन-सा है?
— गुजरात


58. भारत का सबसे दक्षिणी बिन्दु निम्नलिखित में से कौन-सा है?
— इन्दिरा प्वाइंट


59. इन्दिरा प्वाइंट को अन्य किस नाम से जाना जाता है?
— पारसन प्वाइंट, ला-हि-चिंग, पिगमेलियन प्वाइंट


60. भारत और श्रीलंका को पृथक करने वाला जलडमरूमध्य क्या कहलाता है?
— पाक जलसन्धि


61. भारत की सबसे लम्बी स्थलीय सीमा किस देश के साथ लगती है?
— बांग्लादेश


62. भारत की सबसे छोटी स्थलीय सीमा किस देश के साथ लगती है?
— भूटान


63. दक्षिण भारत का सर्वोच्च पर्वत शिखर कौन-सा है?
— अनाईमुदी


64. आर्यों ने भारत में किस दर्रे से होकर प्रवेश किया था?
— खैबर


65. भारत की कौन-सी पर्वत श्रेणी नवीनतम है?
— हिमालय


66. प्राय:द्वीपीय भारत की सबसे बड़ी नदी कौन-सी है?
— गोदावरी नदी


67. भारत और पाकिस्तान के बीच रेडक्लिक रेखा कब निर्धारित की गई?
— 15 अगस्त 1947 को


68. महेन्द्र गिरि की पहाडियॉं किन दो राज्यों के तट पर है?
— ओडिशा एवं आंध्र प्रदेश के तट पर है


69. केंद्रशासित प्रदेशों में सबसे बडा पत्तन कौन सा है?
— पोर्ट ब्लेयर


70. कोलाबा प्वाइंट कहॉ है?
— मुम्बई में


71. डूरंड रेखा जो भारत और अफगानिस्‍तान के मध्‍य है, कब निर्धारित की गई थी?
— 1896 में


72. भारत की सबसे बडी तटीय झील कौन सी है?
— चिल्‍का झील (ओडि़शा)


73. मीठे पानी सबसे बड़ी झील कौन सी है?
— बुलर झील


74. बुलर झील भारत के किस राज्‍य में है?
— जम्‍मू कश्‍मीर में


75. खारे पानी की सबसे बडी झील कौन सी है?
— सांभर झील


76. सबसे बड़ी कृत्रिम झील कौन सी है?
— इंदिरा सागर झील


77. गोविन्‍द् सागर झील कहॉं स्थित है?
— हिमाचल प्रदेश


78. भारत का सबसे ऊँचा जल प्रपात कौन सा है?
— गरसोप्‍पा जल प्रपात या जोग जल प्रपात


79. जोग जलप्रपात किस राज्‍य में है?
— कर्नाटक में


80. जोग जलप्रपात का नया नाम क्‍या है?
— महात्‍मा गांधी जल प्रपात


81. महात्‍मा गांधी जलविद्युत उत्‍पादक प्‍लान्‍ट कहॉ है?
— जोग जलप्रपात पर ( कर्नाटक में )


82. जोग जलप्रपात किस नदी पर है?
— श्रावती नदी पर


83. कलोकत जल प्रपात किस राज्‍य में है?
— बिहार में?


84. गंगानदी का उद्गमस्‍थल कौन सा है?
— गंगोत्री (उत्‍तराखण्‍ड)


85. भारत की पवित्र नदी कौन सी है?
— गंगा


86. गंगा को बाग्‍लादेश में किस नाम से जानी जाती है?
— पद्मा


87. कुल अक्षांशों की संख्या कितनी है?
— 180


88. विश्व का सबसे बड़ा नदी द्वीप ‘माजुली’ का निर्माण करने वाली नदी हैं?
— ब्रह्मपुत्र


89. पृथ्वी के उत्तरी ध्रुव एवं दक्षिणी ध्रुव को मिलाने वाली रेखा क्या कहलाती है?
— देशांतर रेखा


90. स्थल मण्डल का तात्पर्य है?
— पृथ्वी की बाह्य पपड़ी


91. किस नदी को ‘उड़ीसा का शोक’ कहा जाता है?
— महानदी


92. पृथ्वी के किस भाग में निकल और लोहे की प्रधानता है?
— निफे


93. तमिलनाडु व आन्ध्र प्रदेश के तट का नाम है?
— कोरोमण्डल


94. छोटा नागपुर का पठार जिस संसाधन में समृद्ध है, वह है?
— खनिज


95. कोपली जिसकी सहायक नदी है, वह है?
— ब्रह्मपुत्र


96. भारत में मुख्य कृषि पदार्थ आयात मद हैं
— खाने योग्य तेल


97. नेवल एअर स्टेशन ‘गरुड़’ कहाँ पर स्थित है?
— कोच्चि


98. समुद्री तट के सहारे कोहरे के निर्माण का कारण है?
— अभिवहन


99. दक्षिण भारत में प्रवाहित होने वाली किस नदी का थाला सबसे बड़ा है?
— गोदावरी


100.शस्य गहनता की दृष्टि से भारत का सबसे समृद्ध राज्य कौन-सा है?
— पंजाब

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National parks of India

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Notes on Salient Features of Indian Constitution


The Constitution of India is the longest, written constitution in the world, with 464 articles under 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices, and 122 amendments today. The Constitution of India is the lengthiest constitution in the world as no other constitution contains as many articles.

India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic State

The Constitution declares India to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.

➤Sovereign means absolutely independent, it is not under the control of any other state.

➤Socialist involves a system which will endeavour to avoid concentration of wealth in a few hands and will assure its equitable distribution. It also implies that India is against exploitation in all forms and believes in economic justice to all its citizens.

➤Secular means there is no state religion in India. Every citizen is free to follow and practice the religion of his/her own choice. The state cannot discriminate among its citizens on the basis of religion.

➤Democratic means that the power of the government is vested in the hands of the people, people exercise this power through their elected representatives who are responsible to them. All citizens enjoy equal political rights.

➤Republic means that the head of the state is not a hereditary monarch.

➤Federal Government: The constitution provides for a federal form of government. In a federation, there are two governments- at the central level and at the state level. The powers of the government are divided between the central government and the state government.

➤Fundamental Rights & Fundamental Duties: Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties are the most important characteristics of the Constitution. Fundamental Rights are considered to be essential for the proper moral and material uplift of people. These rights are fundamental in the sense that any law passed by the legislature in the country would be declared as null and void if it is derogatory to the rights guaranteed by the constitution.

➤Parliamentary Government: Indian Constitution provides a parliamentary form of government. President is the nominal head of the state. The government is run by the Prime Minister and other members of the Council of Minister. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament.

➤Partly rigid and partly flexible: The Constitution of India is neither wholly rigid nor wholly flexible. It is partly rigid and partly flexible.

• Certain provisions of the constitution can be amended by a simple majority in the Parliament.

• Certain provisions can be amended by a two-thirds majority of the Parliament and its ratification by at least fifty percent of states.

• The remaining provisions can be amended by the Parliament by the two-thirds majority.

➤Single Citizenship: In the federation, normally we have double citizenship. In the U.S.A every citizen of the United States of America is also a citizen of the state in which he or she resides. But the constitution of India provides single citizenship to every Indian.

➤Independent Judiciary: The Indian Constitution provides for an independent judiciary. The judiciary has been made independent of the Executive as well as the Legislature. The judges give impartial justice

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List Of Diseases Caused By Virus, Bacteria, Protozoa And Worm


Disease caused by Viruses:

Chicken pox – It is caused by Varicella-zoster virus.

Small Pox – It is caused by Variola virus.

Common Cold -It is caused by Rhinovirus.

AIDS (Acquired Immunono Deficiency Syndrome) – It is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

Measles -It is caused by Measles virus.

Mumps -It is caused by Mumps virus.

Rabies – It is caused by Rabies virus (Rhabdoviridae family).

Dengue fever -It is caused by Dengue virus.

Viral encephalitis – It is an inflammation of the brain. It is caused by rabies virus, Herpes simplex, polio virus, measles virus, and JC virus.

Disease caused by Bacteria:

Whooping Cough – It is caused by a bacterium called Borde tella pertussis.

Diphtheria – It is caused by Coryne bacterium diphtheriae.

Cholera – It is caused by Vibrio cholerae.

Leprosy – It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae.

Pneumonia- It is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Tetanus – It is caused by Clostridium tetani.

Typhoid – It is caused by Salmonella typhi.

Tuberculosis – It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Plague – It is caused by Yersinia pestis.

Disease Caused by Protozoans: 

Malaria It is spread by Anopheles mosquitoes. The Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria is neither a virus nor a bacteria

Amoebic dysentery: It is caused by Entamoebahistolytica.

Sleeping sickness: It is caused by Trypanosomabrucei.

Kala azar It is caused by Leishmaniadonovani.

Disease Caused by Worms

Tapeworm: They are intestinal parasites. It cannot live on its own. It survives within the intestine of an animal including human.

Filariasis: It is caused by thread.

Pinworm: It is caused by small, thin, white roundworm called Enterobiusvermicularis