History history Notes and pdf RRB RAILWAYS SSC UP SI

Notes on Buddhism and Jainism

Buddhism and Jainism are two branches of the Samana tradition that still exists today. Buddhism and Jainism originated from the prevailing pessimism of the time and both creeds had some common points.

Jainism and Buddhism had the largest number of followers among the mercantile class. Both Mahavira and Buddha preached their doctrines in the language of the people.

➤Buddhism :

• Buddhism was started by Gautam Buddha who was also known as Sakyamuni and Tathagata

• Gautam Buddha was born in the year 563 B.C at Lumbini near Kapilvastu district of Nepal on the day of the Poornima (full moon day)

• His childhood name was Siddhartha

•  His father’s name was king Suddhodhana who was the ruler of the Saka dynasty and the mother’s name was Mahamaya who was the princess of the Kosalan dynasty

• 7 days after the birth of Gautam Buddha, her mother died and he was brought up by his stepmother Mahaprajapati Gautami  who gave him the  title of Gautam

• In his childhood Gautam Buddha use to play with his horse named Kanthak

• At the age of 16 years Gautam Buddha was married with extremely beautiful Yasodhara and had a son named Rahula

• After seeing the sorrow of the world Gautam Buddha decided to leave the pleasures of the life and start living the life of the wanderer

• At the age of 29 years he left home in search of salvation or Nirvana and reached Vaishali where he became the disciple of Alara Klama but he was not convinced by the teachings of Alara Klama and he moved from there and became the disciple of Udraka Ramputra

• He wondered for 6 years and one day at Bodh Gaya under the Peepal tree (bodhi tree) he attained the Nirvana or Enlightenment at the age of 35 years

• Tapasso and Mallic became the first disciple of Gautam Buddha whereas Ananda was the most favorite disciple of Gautam Budddha

• Gautam Buddha delivered his first sermon at Sarnath on the topic “Dharmachakrapravartan” or Turning of the Wheel of Law

• In his last days of life he reached Vaishali where his disciple named Kunda fed him pork due to which he died at the age of 80 years in the year 483 B.C at Kushinagar district Deoria in the Malla republic. His death is known as Mahaparinirvana

➤Important events in the life of Buddha :






Lotus and Bull





Bodh Gaya

Bodhi Tree

Dharmachakra Pravartana






➤Doctrines of Buddhism :

• Four noble truths

1. Dukha – life is full of sorrow

2. Samyuda – there are causes for the sorrow

3. Nirodha – they can be stopped

4. Nirodha Gamini Pratipada – Path leading towards cessation of sorrow

• Eight-Fold Paths of Buddhism

1. Right observation

2. Right determination

3. Right exercise

4. Right action

5. Right speech

6. Right memory

7. Right meditation

8. Right livelihood

• Madhya Marga – to avoid the excess of both luxury and austerity

• Triratnas – Buddha, Dharma and Sangha

➤ Buddhist Literature :

The Buddhist literatures were written in the Pali language

• Vinay Pitaka

It deals with the laws of the Buddhist monasteries. It was recited by Uppali in the first Buddhist council in the year 483 B.C

• Sutta Pitaka

It is the collection of the Buddha’s sermons and it is divided in 5 parts

• Abhidhamma Pitaka

It deals with the life and the philosophy of the Buddha’s teachings

• Milindapanho

It deals with the conversation with the Greek king Menander and the Buddhist Monk Nagasena

• Tripitaka

It is the sacred book of the Buddhism

➤Buddhist Councils :

1. First Council

The first council was held in the year 483 B.C at Saptaparni caves near Rajgriha in Bihar under the chairmanship of king Ajatshatru, during the first council two Buddhist literatures were compiled Vinaya and Sutta Pitaka by Upali

2. Second Council

The second council was held in the year 383 B.C at Vaishali under the chairmanship of king Kalashoka

3. Third Council

The third council was held in the year 250 B.C at Patliputra under the chairmanship of king Ashoka the Great, during the third council Abhidhamma Pitaka was added and Buddhist holy book Tripitaka was compiled.

4. Fourth Council

The fourth council was held in the year 78 A.D at Kundalvan in Kashmir under the chairmanship of king Kanishka, during this council Hinayana and Mahayana were divided.

➤Types of Buddhist :

The Buddhism after the death of Gautam Buddha was divided into 3 parts

1. Hinayan

They believe in the real teachings of Gautam Buddha of attaining Nirvana. They do not believe in idol worship and Pali language was used in the Hinayana text

2. Mahayana

They believe that Nirvana is attained by the grace of Gautam Buddha and not by following his teachings. They believe in idol worship and Sanskrit was used in Mahayana text

3. Vajrayana

They believe that Nirvana is attained by the help of magical tricks or black magic.

➤Famous Monks at the time of Buddha :

• Ananda – constant companion of Buddha and most devoted disciple

• Anurddha – master of right mindfulness

• Mahakassapa – president of Buddhist council held at Rajagriha

• Moggallana – he had greatest super natural powers

• Sariputta – possessed the profound insight into the dhamma

• Upali – master of Vinaya

➤Famous Buddhist Scholars :

• Ashvagosha – contemporary of Kanishka, poet, dramatist, musician who wrote famous book Buddhacharita

• Nagarjuna – friend and contemporary  of Satavahana kings wrote the famous book Madhyamik Shastra

• Buddhagosha – pali scholar  who wrote “Visuddhimaga”

• Dinnaga – founder of Buddhist logic

➤Important Buddhist Gods and Goddess :

1. Buddha Shakyamuni – the historical Buddha

2. Buddha Maitreya – the future Buddha.

3. Avalokiteshavara – the Bodhisattva of Compassion

4. Manjushri – the bodhisattva of wisdom and literature.

5. Tara – a female Bodhisattva. She is considered a great protector that guards people against the eight major dangers in life

6. Padmasambhava – also called Guru Rinpoche, is the historically tangible founder of Tibetan Buddhism

➤Jainism :

• According to Jain tradition, there were 24 Tirthankaras. Rishabha was the first Tirthankara and Vardhaman Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara.

• Mahavira was born in 540 BC Kundagrama near Vaishali, and left his home at the age of 30.

• At the age of 42, he attained the highest spiritual knowledge called Kevala-Jnana.

• As per Jainism way to Nirvana is also known as Three Ratnatraya involves Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct.

• Five carinal principles of Jainism are Ahimsa, Non-Lying, Non-Stealing, Non-Possession, and Brahmacharya. 

• Later divided into two sects: Swethembaras and Digambaras.

➤Five vows of Jainism :

• Ahimsa – non-violence

• Satya – do not speak a lie

• Asteya – do not steal

• Aparigraha – do not acquire property

• Brahmacharya – celibacy

➤Three main principles :

• Ahimsa

• Anekantavada

• Aparigraha

➤Triratna’s of Jainism :

• Right faith – Samayak Shradha

• Right Knowledge – Samayak Jnan

• Right Conduct – Samayak karma

➤Five types of knowledge :

• Mati jnana

• Shruta jnana

• Avadhi jnana

• Manahparayaya Jnana

• Keval Jnana

➤Jain council :

• 1st Council at Patliputra under the Patron of Chandragupta Maurya in 300 BC during which the 12 angas were compiled

• 2nd Council at Vallabhi in 512 AD during which the final compilation of 12 angas and 12 upangas was done

➤Sects :

• Shwetambars – Sthulabhadra – People who put on white robes. Those who stayed back in the North during the times of famine

• Digambars – Bhadrabahu – Exodus of monks to Deccan and South during the times of Magadhan famine. They have a naked attire

➤Jain Literature :

Jain literature used Prakrit, which is a common language of people than using Sanskrit. In this way, Jainism reached far and wide through people. The important literary works are

• 12 Angas

• 12 Upangas

• 10 Parikramas

• 6 Chhedsutras

• 4 Mulasutras

2 Sutra Grantas

• Part of Sangam literature is also attributed to Jain scholars.


History history Notes and pdf RRB RAILWAYS SSC UP SI

Notes on mauryan empire

History Notes and pdf RRB RAILWAYS SSC

Rise of maratha Empire

History Notes: Rise of Maratha Empire
➤Maratha Empire

• The geographical condition of Maharashtra helped in the rise of the Maratha empire.

• It’s an important episode of Indian history.

• Most of the region of Maharashtra had plateau region plateau also provided a good facility for guerilla-warfare to the Maratha.

• The rise of the Maratha empire was the result of the efforts of the entire Maratha people who on the basis of unity of their languages, literature, community, and homeland gave birth to Maratha nationalism and desired to create an independent state of their own.

• The saints of the Bhakti Movement in Maharashtra had also played an important role.
➤Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

• Shivaji was born in 1627. In fort of Shivneri

• He was the son of Shahji Bhonsle and Jija Bai.

• Shivaji inherited the Jagir of Poona from his father in 1637.

• After the death of his guardian, Dadaji Kondadev, in 1647, he assumed full charge of his Jagir.

• His guru was Ramdas Samrath

• He conquered many Forts viz., Singh Garh/ Kondana (1643), Rohind and Chakan (1644-45), Toran (1646), Purandhar (1648), Rajgarh/ Raigarh (1656), Supa (1656), Panhala (1659).

• In 1657 Shivaji first confronted the Mughals, talking advantage of the Mughal invasion of Bijapur, he raided Ahamadnagar and plundered Junnar.

• In 1659-60, Afzal Khan was deputed by Adil Shah of Bijapur to punish Shivaji; but the later Afzal Khan was murdered by Shivaji in 1659. The famous ―baghnakh‖ episode is related with the death of Afzal Khan.

• In 1660, Shaista Khan, governor of Deccan, was deputed by Aurangzeb to check Marathas. Shivaji lost Poona, Kalyan and Chakan also suffered several defeats till he made a bold attack on Shaista Khan(1663) and plundered Surat (1664) and later Ahmadnagar.

• Raja Jai Singh of Amber and Diler Khan were then appointed by Aurangzeb to curb the rising power of Shivaji in 1665.

• Jai Singh succeeded in besieging Shivaji in the fort of Purandhar. Consequently the treaty of Purandhar (1665) was signed according to which Shivaji ceded some forts to the Mughals and paid a visit to the Mughal court at Agra.

• 1666, Shivaji visited Agra but there he was insulted.

• 1670, Shivaji captured most of the forts lost by the treaty of Purandhar.

• 1674 Shivaji was coroneted at capital Raigarh and assumed the title of Haindava Dharmodharak (Protector of Hinduism).

• After that Shivaji continued the struggle with Mughals and Siddis (Janjira). He conquest Karnataka during 1677-80.

• His last expedition was against Ginjee and Vellore.

➤Successors of Shivaji

  1. Shambhaji (1680-1689)-

• Sambhaji, the elder son of Shivaji, defeated Rajaram, the younger son of Shivaji, in the war of succession.

• He provided protection and support to Akbar II, the rebellious son of Aurangzeb.

• He was captured at Sangameswar by a Mughal noble and executed(killed).

  1. Rajaram (1689-1700)-

• He succeeded the throne with the help of the ministers at Rajgarh.

• He fled from Rajgarh to Jinji in 1689 due to a Mughal invasion in which Rajgarh was captured along with Sambhaji‘s wife and son (Shahu) by the Mughals.

• Rajaram died at Satara, which had become the capital after the fall of Jinji to Mughal in 1698.

• Rajaram created the new post of Pratinidhi, thus taking the total number of the minister to nine (Pratinidhi+Ashtapradhan).

  1. Tarabai(1700-1707)-

• Rajaram was succeeded by his minor son Shivaji II under the guardianship of his mother Tarabai.

• Tarabai continued the struggle with Mughals

  1. Shahu (1707-1749)-

• Shahu was released by the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah.

• Tarabai‘s army was defeated by Shahu at the battle of Khed (1700) and Shahu occupied Satara.

• Shahu‘s reign saw the rise of Peshwas and the transformation of the Maratha kingdom into an empire based on the principle of the confederacy.

  1. Balaji Viswanath (1714-20)=The First Peshwa

• He began his carrier as a small revenue official and was given the title of Sena Karte (a marker of the army) by Shahu in 1708.

• Balaji became Peshwa in 1713 and made the post the most important and powerful as well as hereditary.

• He concluded an agreement with the Syed Brothers-King Maker (1719) by which the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar recognized Shahu as the king of the Swarajya.

  1. Baji Rao-I (1720-40)-

• Baji Rao, the eldest son of Balaji Viswanath, succeeded him as Peshwa at the young age of 20.

• He was considered the greatest exponent of guerrilla tactics after Shivaji and Maratha’s power reached its zenith under him.

• Under him, several Maratha families became prominent and got themselves entrenched in different parts of India.

• He conquered Bassein.

• Baji Rao-I also defeated the Nizam-ul-Mulk near Bhopal and concluded the treaty of Doraha Sarai by which he got Malwa and Bundelkhand from the latter (1738).

• Baji Rao-I said about Mughals: Let us strike at the trunk of the withering tree and the branches will fall of themselves‘

  1. Balaji Baji Rao(1740-61)-

• Popularly known as Nana Saheb, he succeeded his father at the age of 20.

• After the death of Shahu (1749), the management of all state affairs was left in his hands.

• In an agreement with the Mughal emperor Ahmad Shah, the Peshwa was to protect the Mughal empire from internal and external enemies (like Ahmad Shah Abdali) in return for Chauth (1752).

• The third battle of Panipat (Jan 14, 1761) resulted in the defeat of the Marathas by Ahmad Shah Abdali and the death of Viswas Rao & Sadashiv Rao Bhau. This event shocked the Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao and after six months he also died. This battle ended the Maratha power.

➤Anglo Maratha Wars:

  1. First Anglo -Maratha War (1775-1782)

The British fought in favour of Peshwaship to Raghunath Rao. The English (under Hastings) were defeated by the Marathas. They had to sign the Convention of Wadgaon in 1779, which was humiliating for the British. The English later signed the Treaty of Salbai in 1782 where they renounced their cause of Peshwaship for raghoba.

  1. Second Anglo – Maratha War (1803- 1806)

The Maratha Peshwa Baji rao II signed the Subsidiary Alliance Treaty of Bassein in 1802. Other Maratha chief who were part of Maratha confederacy, were not happy due to this arrangement. The Scindias of Gwalior began the war against the British but they were defeated by the British.

  1. Third Anglo – Maratha War (1817-1818)

It is also known as Pindari war. Lord Hastings was determined to proclaim British paramountcy in India. Hastings moved against Pindaris which transgressed the sovereignty of the Maratha chiefs and the war began. The Marathas were defeated.